Welcome to the first annual CHAARM newsletter which we hope will give an insight into the work of the CHAARM consortium. The first year of the CHAARM project has coincided with very significant developments elsewhere in the microbicides field. In July 2010, for the first time, successful results were reported (XVIII AIDS Conference and published in the journal Science) from a clinical trial of a vaginally applied microbicide. The trial (CAPRISA 004) carried
out in South Africa demonstrated that vaginally applied tenofovir gel reduced HIV infections by 39% compared with a placebo gel. In November, the results of the iPrEx trial (published in the New England Journal of Medicine) demonstrated that a combination pill of tenofovir and emtricitabine taken orally reduced infections by approximately 44% compared with a placebo pill.